East Anatolian Red Cattle
Also known by: Dogu Anadolu Kirmizisi
East Anatolian Red Cattle (EARC) which represents 10.02% of the cattle population of a region with 1,243,482 animals (Emsen, 1993). EARC are well suited to the harsh climate, poor pasture and severe conditions that are the characteristics of the hills and uplands of East Anatolia which is 1300-2000 m above sea level with an average winter temperature of -15oC and annual rainfall of 350-400 mm. EARC generally used as a dual purpose breed. After the introduction of the highly productive breeds in terms of milk and meat yield (Brown Swiss and Simmental) farmers have showed great interest in these breeds and their crosses with EARC. These trends and crossing of native breed cows therefore has had a negative effect on the population of native breeds as well as EARC. This breed has been taken under the control at East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute as a Genetic resource in 1991 as a result of the decreasing population.
Common color of the EARC is light red, although color varies from light to dark red. EARC is highly resistant to cold temperatures and severe conditions and is also very well adapted physically to derive benefit from short and poor quality pasture. The hooves of the EARC are small, dense compact. The tip is narrow and sharp allowing the EARC to control its momentum and balance while grazing on step and rock terrain. Average mature weight ranges from 250-300 kg. Calving rate for EARC is about %80 percent in village conditions and most calves (%60-65) born between the 15th of February and 15th of April. Birth weight of calves averages 18 kg (Akbulut and Ulutas, 1994). The average lactation period and milk yields are 170 days and 700-800 kg with a 5-8% fat content respectively. Liveweight gain and feed conversion efficiency of the EARC and its crosses ranged changing from 616-1009 g and 5.94-9.6 kg respectively according to age and method of feeding.
Akbulut, Ö. ve Ulutas, Z., (1994). Dogu Anadolu Kirmizisi Sigirlarinda büyüme ve gelisme özellikleri. Hayvancilik Arastirma Dergisi, 4, 2: 107-109.
Ulutas, Z., Akbulut, Ö., Tüzemen, N., Özlütürk, A. ve Yalçin, C. (1994). Saf ve melez Dogu Anadolu Kirmizi erkek tosunlarinin besi performansi üzerine bir arastirma. Lalahan Hayvancilik Arastirma Enstitüsü Dergisi, 34: 90-102.
Ulutas, Z. (1995). The Application of REML and BLUP to Estimate Breeding Value and Variance Components of Weights in East Anatolian Red Cattle and Brown Swiss Cattle. MSc. Thesis. University of Wales, Bangor, UK.
Dr. Zafer Ulutas, Gaziosmanpasa Üniversitesi Ziraat Fak. Zootekni Bölümü 60240-TOKAT TURKEY