The breed was formed in the mountain and steppe zone adjacent to the Volga and the Urals. The Bashkir was used as a draft and utility horse and as a producer of milk and meat.
The Bashkir is a small, wide-bodied and bony horse. It has a massive head and a short and fleshy neck. The withers are low, the back erect and broad, the croup nicely rounded, the ribs long and well sprung, the chest broad and deep and the legs short and bony. The mane and tail are thick.
The average measurements (in cm) are: stallions - height at withers 143, oblique body length 144, chest girth 180, cannon bone girth 20; mares: 142, 145, 178 and 18.5 respectively. The most widespread colors are bay, chestnut, roan and mouse grey.
The Bashkir has a high work endurance. The mares' average milk yield is 1500 kg of marketable milk. The best mares produce 2700 kg in 7-8 months of lactation.
The Bashkir is being improved by pure breeding and by crossing with the Russian Heavy Draft. Experimentally, the Bashkir was crossed with Kazakh and Yakut horses. The Bashkir stock is mainly concentrated at Ufa stud, the leading center for the breed.
Dmitriez, N.G. and Ernst, L.K. (1989) Animal Genetic Resources of the USSR. Animal Production and Health Paper Publ. by FAO, Rome, 517 pp.