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A Kazakh horse standing in a halter.This group of steppe horses was numerous as early as the 5th century B.C. Since then Kazakh horses were influenced by many breeds - Mongolian, Karabair, Arabian and Akhal-Teke. In the late 20th century, Kazakh horses have been improved by the Thoroughbred, Orlov Trotter and Don.


Kazakhstan horses are kept on pastures year round. They are concentrated in western Kazakhstan. In this vast territory they have become differentiated into various ecological types and varieties. The most widespread are: the Jabe and the Adaev.


Jabe horses were formed in southern districts of Aktubinsk regions and then spread all over Kazakhstan. Their most important characteristics are: rugged head, thick neck, wide body and deep chest. The back is straight and the croup well muscled. Legs are set correctly and are sufficiently strong. The skin is thick and dense; hair covering is rather good. Color is bay, dark bay or red, occasionally grayish or gray.


The measurements of stallions (in cm) are: height at withers 144, chest girth 180, cannon bone girth 19; those of mares are lower 142, 178, and 18.8 respectively. Considering their small measurements, Kazakh horses of the Jabe type have a high live weight - 400-500 kg.


A Kazakh horse standing in a bridle.Milk and meat performance of Jabe horses are very high - some mares yield up to 20 kg of milk at hand-milking and they fatten quickly.


Horses of the Adaev type have a more pronounced saddle character; they have a more clean-cut conformation, light head, long neck, well-defined withers, and straight back. However, horses with narrow chest and too light bone occur because of the primitive management conditions.


All in all, Kazakh horses fall short in performance. Their gaits are poor: short stride, jolting and not strong trot. At the same time they are very hardy. Thus the stallion Zolotnik covered 264 km per day and Adaev horses did 297 km during a daily run. Jabe horses are noted for their good meat characteristics - the meat yield at slaughter is 57-60%. The Kazakh breed numbers over 300,000. The best farm in the Mugojar stud.



Dmitriez, N.G. and Ernst, L.K. (1989) Animal Genetic Resources of the USSR. Animal Production and Health Paper Publ. by FAO, Rome, 517 pp.

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